1846 – Thornton Affair: Open conflict
begins over the disputed border of Texas, triggering the
1847 – The last survivors of the Donner
Party are out of the wilderness.
1862 – American Civil War: Forces under
Union Admiral David Farragut demand the surrender of the
Confederate city of New Orleans, Louisiana.
1864 – American Civil War: The Battle of
1898 – Spanish–American War: The United
States declares war on Spain.
1901 –New York becomes the first U.S.
state to require automobile license plates.
1920 – At the San Remo conference, the
principal Allied Powers of World War I adopt a resolution to
determine the allocation of Class "A" League of Nations
mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled
lands of the Middle East.
1938 – U.S. Supreme Court delivers its
opinion in Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins and overturns a
century of federal common law.
1944 – The United Negro College Fund is
1945 – Elbe Day: United States and Soviet
troops meet in Torgau along the River Elbe, cutting the
Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany in two, a milestone in the
approaching end of World War II in Europe.
1945 – Fifty nations gather in San
Francisco, California to begin the United Nations Conference
on International Organizations.
1951 – Korean War: Assaulting Chinese
forces are forced to withdraw after heavy fighting with UN
forces, primarily made up of Australian and Canadian troops,
at the Battle of Kapyong.
1953 – Francis Crick and James D. Watson
publish "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure
for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" describing the double helix
structure of DNA.
1959 – The St. Lawrence Seaway, linking
the North American Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean,
officially opens to shipping.
1960 – The U.S. Navy submarine USS
Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation
of the globe.
1961 – Robert Noyce is granted a patent
for an integrated circuit.
1965 – Teenage sniper Michael Andrew
Clark kills three and wounds six others shooting from a
hilltop along Highway 101 just south of Santa Maria,
1972 – Vietnam War: Nguyen Hue Offensive
– The North Vietnamese 320th Division forces 5,000 South
Vietnamese troops to retreat and traps about 2,500 others
northwest of Kontum.
1975 – As North Vietnamese forces close
in on the South Vietnamese capital Saigon, the Australian
Embassy is closed and evacuated, almost ten years to the day
since the first Australian troop commitment to South
1982 – Israel completes its withdrawal
from the Sinai Peninsula per the Camp David Accords.
1983 – American schoolgirl Samantha Smith
is invited to visit the Soviet Union by its leader Yuri
Andropov after he read her letter in which she expressed
fears about nuclear war.
1983 – Pioneer 10 travels