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History of the U.S.
Prehistory
Pre-Columbian Era

Colonial America (1492-1763)

Revolutionary Period (1764-1789)

The New Nation (1790-1828)

Western Expansion & Reform (1829-1859)

Civil War (1860-1865)

Reconstruction (1866-1877)

Gilded Age (1878-1889)

Progressive Era (1890-1913)

Great War & Jazz Age (1914-1928)

Depression & WWII (1929-1945)

Modern Era (1946 - present)

State Histories

 

Genetics

 

Genetics

Trivia powered by Prof. WalterThe haplogroup most commonly associated with Indigenous Amerindian genetics is Haplogroup Q1a3a (Y-DNA). Y-DNA, like mtDNA, differs from other nuclear chromosomes in that the majority of the Y chromosome is unique and does not recombine during meiosis. This has the effect that the historical pattern of mutations can easily be studied. The pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial-peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas. The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations.

Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line, with an initial 20,000-year layover on Beringia for the founding population. The micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations has been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.[40] The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q-M242 (Y-DNA) mutations, however are distinct from other indigenous Amerindians with various mtDNA mutations. This suggests that the earliest migrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from later populations.

 
 



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