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Colonial America (1492-1763)

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Depression & WWII (1929-1945)

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European Theater of Operations

World War 2The European Theater of Operations, United States Army (ETOUSA) was a United States Army formation which directed US Army operations in parts of Europe from 1942 to 1945. It referred to Army Ground Forces, United States Army Air Forces, and Army Service Forces operations north of Italy and the Mediterranean coast, in the European Theater of World War II. It was bordered to the south by the North African Theater of Operations, US Army (NATOUSA), which later became the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTOUSA).

The term "theater of operations" was defined in the US Army field manuals as "the land and sea areas to be invaded or defended, including areas necessary for administrative activities incident to the military operations". In accordance with the experience of World War I, it was usually conceived of as a large land mass over which continuous operations would take place and was divided into two chief areas-the combat zone, or the area of active fighting, and the Communications Zone, or area required for administration of the theater. As the armies advanced, both these zones and the areas into which they were divided would shift forward to new geographic areas of control.

Campaigns and Operations

  • Normandy Campaign June 6, 1944 – July 24, 1944

  • Northern France Campaign July 25, 1944 – September 14, 1944

  • Southern France Campaign

  • Rhineland Campaign

    • Lorraine Campaign (unofficial) September 1, 1944 – December 18, 1944

  • Ardennes–Alsace Campaign December 16, 1944 – January 25, 1945 ("Battle of the Bulge")

  • Central Europe Campaign March 22, 1945 – May 11, 1945

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