the frontier moved westward, the establishment of U.S. military
forts moved with it, representing and maintaining federal
sovereignty over new territories.
As settlement sped up
across the West after the transcontinental railroad was
completed, clashes with Native Americans of the Plains and
southwest reached a final phase.
The Arizona War was a
dispute between Wyatt Earp, his brothers, Doc Holliday and an
outlaw gang known as the Cowboys, led by Ike Clanton.
In 1889, President
Benjamin Harrison authorized the opening of 2,000,000 acres of
unoccupied lands in the Oklahoma territory acquired from the
The Johnson County War
was a range war which took place in Johnson County, Wyoming, in
the Powder River Country in April 1892.
In his highly
influential Frontier Thesis in 1893, Frederick Jackson Turner
concluded that the frontier was all but gone. (But with the
discovery of gold in the Klondike in 1896, a new frontier was
opened up in the vast northern territory.
In 1910 the last
conflict of the Old West began when Mexican Carrancistas
rebelled against their government. Fighting spread all across
Mexico and along the Mexican-American border several battles
were fought between American soldiers and citizens against
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