Desserts | Ice Cream and ...
Before the development of modern refrigeration, ice cream was a
luxury item reserved for special occasions. Making ice cream was
quite laborious. Ice was cut commercially from lakes and ponds
during the winter and stored in large heaps in holes in the ground
or in wood-frame ice houses, insulated by straw. Ice cream was made
by hand in a large bowl surrounded by packed ice and salt. The
temperature of the ingredients was reduced by the mixture of crushed
ice and salt.
The salty water is cooled by the ice, and is liquid below the
freezing point of pure water.
The immersed container can make better contact with the salty water
and ice mixture than it could with ice alone.
The hand-cranked churn, which still used ice and salt for cooling,
was invented by an American named Nancy Johnson in 1846, making
production possible on site and avoiding the problem of continuous
chiling between production and consumer. Ice cream became a popular
item for the first time. The world's first commercial ice cream
factory was opened in Baltimore,
Maryland in 1851, by Jacob Fussell, a dairy farmer. An unstable
demand for his milk led him to mass produce ice cream. This allowed
the previously expensive concoction to be offered in the city at
reduced prices. Fussell opened ice cream parlors as far west as
Texas. Many were still around well into the 20th century. Fussell
later sold his business to Borden.
The development of industrial refrigeration
by German engineer Carl
von Linde during the 1870s eliminated the need to cut and store
natural ice and when the continuous-process freezer was perfected in
1926, allowed commercial mass production of ice cream and the birth
of the modern ice cream industry.
The most common method for producing ice cream at home is to use
cream maker, in modern times generally an electrical device that
churns the ice cream mixture while cooled inside a household
freezer, or using ice and salt. A newer method of making home-made
ice cream is to add liquid
nitrogen to the mixture while stirring it using a spoon or