1. True. During American Prohibition, the soda fountain to some extent
replaced the outlawed alcohol establishments such as bars and saloons.
2. True. Ice cream became popular throughout the world in the second
half of the 20th century after cheap refrigeration became common. There was an
explosion of ice cream stores and of flavors and types. Vendors often competed
on the basis of variety. Howard Johnson's restaurants advertised "a world
of 28 flavors." Baskin-Robbins made its 31 flavors ("one for every day
of the month") the cornerstone of its marketing strategy. The company now
boasts that it has developed over 1000 varieties.
3. False. One important development in the 20th century was the
introduction of soft ice cream. A chemical research team in Britain (of which a
young Margaret Thatcher was a member) discovered a method of doubling the amount
of air in ice cream, which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual
ingredients, thereby reducing costs. This ice cream was also popular amongst
consumers who preferred the lighter texture, and most major ice cream brands now
use this manufacturing process. It also made possible the soft ice cream machine
in which a cone is filled beneath a spigot on order.
4. False. In the United States, Dairy Queen, Carvel, and Tastee-Freez
pioneered in establishing chains of soft-serve ice cream outlets.
5. True. Technological innovations such as these have introduced
various food additives into ice cream, notably the stabilizing agent gluten, to
which some people have an intolerance. Recent awareness of this issue has
prompted a number of manufacturers to start producing gluten-free ice cream.
6. True. The 1980s saw a return of the older, thicker ice creams being
sold as "premium" and "superpremium" varieties under brands
such as Ben & Jerry's and H�agen-Dazs.