Bread is the staple food in Europe, European-derived
cultures such as the Americas, and the Middle East/North
Africa, as opposed to East Asia whose staple is rice.
Bread is usually made from a wheat-flour dough that is
cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in
Owing to its high levels of gluten (which
give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common wheat
(also known as bread wheat) is the most common grain used
for the preparation of bread, but bread is also made from
the flour of other wheat species (including durum, spelt
and emmer), rye, barley, maize (or corn), and oats,
usually, but not always, in combination with wheat flour.
Spelt bread (Dinkelbrot) continues to be widely consumed
in Germany, and emmer bread was a staple food in ancient
Egypt. Canadian bread is known for its heartier
consistency due to high protein levels in Canadian flour.
bread is made from flour containing only the central core
of the grain (endosperm).
- Brown bread is made with
endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread
with added coloring (often caramel coloring) to make it
'brown'; commonly labeled in America as "Wheat" bread (as
opposed to "Whole Wheat" bread).
- Wholemeal bread contains the whole of the wheat grain
(endosperm and bran). It is also referred to as 'whole
grain' or 'whole wheat' bread, especially in North
- Wheat germ bread has added wheat germ for flavoring.
- Whole grain bread can refer to the same as 'wholemeal
bread', or to white bread with added whole grains to
increase its fibre content, i.e., as in "60% whole grain
- Roti is a whole wheat based bread eaten in
South Asia. Chapatti is a larger variant of Roti. Naan is
a leavened equivalent to these.
- Granary bread is made from flaked malted wheat grains and
white or brown flour, and trademarked to Hovis. The
standard malting process is modified to maximise maltose /
sugar content but minimise residual alpha amylase content.
Other flavour components are imparted from partial
fermentation due to the particular malting process used
and to Maillard reactions on flaking / toasting.
- Rye bread is made with flour from rye grain of varying
levels. It is higher in fiber than many common types of
bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor.
It is popular in Scandinavia, Germany, Finland, the Baltic
States, and Russia.
- Unleavened Bread or Matzah used for the Jewish feast of
Passover, does not include yeast, thus it does not rise.
- Sourdough bread is made with a starter.
- Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service are
inventing new whole-grain oat and barley breads that offer
more antioxidants and fibers than traditional whole-grain
- Flatbread, is often simple, made with flour, water, and
salt and then formed into flattened dough; most are
unleavened, made without yeast or sourdough culture, some
are made with yeast.
Main article: Quick bread
Quick breads usually refer
to breads chemically leavened, usually with both baking
powder and baking soda, and a balance of acidic
ingredients, and alkaline ingredients. Examples include:
- pancakes and waffles
- muffins and carrot cake
- zucchini and banana bread.
Whole wheat bread