Born: c.1720, Western Pennsylvania
Died: November 10, 1777 (age 57), Point Pleasant, West
or Cornstalk was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people. He was
born about 1720 probably in Pennsylvania. He and the rest of the Shawnee
people, were pushed into Ohio in the 1730's.
His name in his own language meant "blade of corn", and was
rendered in innumerable variations by contemporary chroniclers,
including Colesqua and Keigh-tugh-qua.
Cornstalk and his tribesmen were a part of many battles with the
English settlers of Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio. But, it is his death,
at a time when he had been at peace with the White man, and was actually
trying to warn the fort of impending plans of massacre by militant
American Indians, that perhaps defines Chief Cornstalk.
What do you know about Chief Cornsalk (Hokoleskwa)? Try the Folks
1. Cornstalk and his people lived near what present day Ohio city?
2. During the French and Indian War, who was Cornstalk and the
Shawnee allies with?
- Great Britain
3. In June 1863, he lead his forces against settlers in Virginia (now
West Virginia). He hoped to drive the English away from Shawnee
territory. Where were these settlements?
- Greenbrier County
- Harrison County
- Kanawha County
4. He defeated the Shawnee in 1764. To assure that the natives would
sign a peace treaty ending the rebellion, he seized several hostages,
including Cornstalk. The Shawnee agreed not to take up arms against the
English again. Who lead the English forces?
- Colonel Henry Bouquet
- Colonel George Washington
- Colonel Aaron Burr
5. On May 3, 1774, a group of English colonists killed eleven Mingo
Indians. At least two of them were relatives of a leader of the Mingos.
Who was the leader?
6. In August 1774, Pennsylvania militia entered the Ohio Country and
quickly destroyed seven Mingo villages, which the Indians had abandoned
as the soldiers approached. At the same time, Lord Dunmore sent one
thousand men to the Little Kanawha River in modern-day West Virginia to
build a fort and attack the Shawnees.
7. Cornstalk, who had experienced a change of heart about the white
colonists as the soldiers invaded the Ohio Country, dispatched nearly
one thousand Shawnee warriors to drive Dunmore's force from the region.
The forces met on October 10, 1774. What has the fight become known as?
- Battle of Point Pleasant
- Battle of Muddy Creek
- Battle of Mount Orange
8. Under this new treaty, the Shawnee Indians agreed to the terms of
the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768). They had to give up ownership to all
lands east and south of the Ohio River. This was the first time that
natives that actually lived in the Ohio Country agreed to relinquish
some of their land. In addition, the Shawnees promised to return all
white captives and to no longer attack English colonists traveling down
the Ohio River.
9. Cornstalk abided by this treaty for the rest of his life. Most
Shawnees did not. By 1777, the Shawnee Indians again planned to drive
the white settlers from the region. This time they did so at the urging
of British soldiers who sought assistance in defeating the colonists in
the American Revolution. Cornstalk went to the fort to tell about the
upcoming attacks. When news spread through the garrison of the chief�s
incarceration, a group of militiamen led by John Hall stormed the jail.
Cornstalk and his two men, including his son, Elinipsico, were summarily
shot to death. Who demanded Cornstalk�s killers be brought to trial?
- George Washington
- Patrick Henry
- Thomas Jefferson
10. Where is Chief Cornstalk buried?
- Chief Cornstalk Monument, Tu-Endie-Wei State Park, Point Pleasant,
- Fort Randolph National Cemetery, Point Pleasant, West Virginia
- Muddy Creek Cemetery, Muddy Creek , West Virginia