Antietam: The Battle of South Mountain
The Battle of South Mountain (known in several
early Southern accounts as the Battle of Boonsboro Gap) was fought
September 14, 1862, as part of the Maryland (or Antietam) Campaign
of the Civil War.
What do you know about The Battle of
South Mountain? Try this Civil War History Made Easy
Quiz. "Check Your Answers" at the end of the page.
South Mountain is the name given to the continuation of the Peters
Mountains after they enter Maryland. It is a natural obstacle that
separates the Hagerstown Valley and Cumberland Valley from the
eastern part of Maryland.
True or False?
2) After Robert E. Lee invades Maryland, a copy
of an order detailing troop movements that he writes, falls into
the hands of George B. McClellan. From this, McClellan learns that
Lee has split his forces and the Union general hopes to attack and
defeat some of these isolated forces before they can concentrate
against him. What is the order known as?
- Lee's invasion order
- Order 191
- Order attack
- Order 100
3) Lee never learns of McClellan's intelligence
coup and doesn't send forces to reinforce the passes to block his
True or False?
4) At the southernmost point of the battle, near
Burkittsville, Confederate cavalry and a small portion of Maj.
Gen. Lafayette McLaws's division defends Brownsville Pass and
Crampton's Gap. McLaws is unaware of the approach of 12,000
Federals and has only 500 men under Col. William A. Parham thinly
deploys behind a three quarter-mile-long stone wall at the eastern
base of Crampton's Gap. Who commands the Union forces?
- Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin
- Maj. Gen. William Patton
- Maj. Gen. William Wadsworth
- Maj. Gen. William Holden
5) Who commands the Union Right Wing against
Turner's Gap and Fox's Gap?
- Maj. Gen. Ambrose Gordon
- Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside
- Maj. Gen. Anthony Baker
- Maj. Gen. Ambrose Morgan
6) Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker attacks Turner's Gap.
The Union Iron Brigade attacks Colonel Alfred H. Colquitt's
brigade along the National Road, driving it back up the mountain,
but it refuses to yield the pass. Hooker positions three divisions
opposite two peaks located one mile north of the gap.
True or False?
7) Just to the south, other elements of Hill's
division (most notably Drayton's Brigade) defends Fox's Gap
against Reno's IX Corps. A 9 a.m. attack by Union Brig. Gen. Jacob
D. Cox's Kanawha Division secures much of the land south of the
gap. In the movement, a Lt. Colonel of the 23rd Ohio leads a flank
attack and is seriously wounded. Who is the future U.S. President
that is wounded.
- Warren G. Harding
- Rutherford B. Hayes
- William McKinley
- Woodrow Wilson
8) Union soldiers dump 60 Confederate bodies
down Farmer Daniel Wise's well, paying him $60 in compensation,
according to James M. McPherson, in his Crossroads of Freedom:
Antietam, The Battle That Changed the Course of the Civil War on
9) Union casualties of 28,000 engaged are 2,325
(443 killed, 1,807 wounded, and 75 missing); Confederates loses
2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, and 800 missing) of 18,000. The
Battle of South Mountain is an important morale booster for the
defeat-stricken Army of the Potomac. McClellan's limited activity
on September 15 after his victory at South Mountain condemned the
garrison at Harpers Ferry to capture and gave Lee time to unite
his scattered divisions at Sharpsburg for the Battle of Antietam
on September 17.
10) The battlefields are preserved. What is
NOT a battlefield
- South Mountain State Park
- Gathland State Park
- Appalachian National Scenic Trail
- Cathedral State Park