First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): July 21, 1861
The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as
the First Battle of Manassas (the name used by Confederate
forces) was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County,
Virginia, near the City of Manassas. It was the first
major land battle of the American Civil War.
What do you know about The First
Battle of Bull Run or the First Battle of
Try this Alanís US Civil War
History Made Easy Quiz.
ďCheck Your AnswersĒ
at the end of the page.
On the morning of July 21, Gen. Irvin McDowell sent the
divisions of Hunter and Heintzelman (about 12,000 men) from
Centreville at 2:30 a.m., marching southwest on the Warrenton
Turnpike and then turning northwest toward Sudley Springs.
2) The First Division (about 8,000) marched
directly toward the Stone Bridge. The inexperienced units
immediately developed logistical problems. His division blocked
the advance of the main flanking column on the turnpike.
Who commanded the First Division?
- Tyler Florence
- Malcolm Taylor
- Daniel Tyler
3) Gen. David Hunter and Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelmanís divisions
found the approach roads to Sudley Springs were inadequate,
little more than a cart path in some places.
they begin fording Bull Run?
4) When did the Unionís First Division
reach the Stone Bridge?
- around 6 a.m.
- around 7 a.m.
- around 8 a.m.
5) At 5:15 a.m., Col. Israel B. Richardson's
brigade fired a few artillery rounds across Mitchell's Ford on
the Confederate right, some of which hit Confederate Gen. P.G.T.
Beauregard's headquarters in the Wilmer McLean house as he was
eating breakfast, alerting him to the fact that his offensive
battle plan had been preempted.
6) What Confederate forces were setup
at Union Mills Ford?
- Brig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell
- Brig. Gen. Robert Mann
- Brig. Gen. Mark Reynolds
7) All that stood in the path of the 20,000
Union soldiers converging on the Confederate left flank were
Col. Nathan "Shanks" Evans and his reduced brigade of 1,100 men.
What is NOT a regiment
in Evanís brigade?
- 4th Alabama
- 4th South Carolina
- 30th Virginia Cavalry
8) Col. Evans was informed of the main Union
flanking movement through Sudley Springs by Beauregard's signal
officer, observing from 8 miles southwest on Signal Hill. In the
first use of wig-wag semaphore signaling in combat, Alexander
sent the message "Look out for your left, your position is
turned." Shanks Evans hastily led 900 of his men from their
position fronting the Stone Bridge to a new location on the
slopes of Matthews Hill, a low rise to the northwest of his
Who sent the message to Col.
- Captain Edward Porter Alexander
- Captain Michael McWeeny
- Captain Edward Porter
9) "Shanks" Evans soon received reinforcement
from two other brigades under Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee and Col.
Francis S. Bartow, bringing the force on the flank to 2,800 men.
They successfully slowed Hunter's lead brigade (Brig. Gen.
Ambrose E. Burnside) in its attempts to ford Bull Run and
advance across Young's Branch, at the northern end of Henry
Who commanded Union Gen. Hunterís lead
- Brig. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside
- Brig. Gen. Thomas Lee
- Brig. Gen. George A. Custer
10) One of Tyler's brigade commanders crossed
at an unguarded ford and struck the right flank of the
Confederate defenders. This surprise attack, coupled with
pressure from Union forces collapsed the Confederate line
shortly after 11:30 a.m., sending them in a disorderly retreat
to Henry House Hill.
Who was the Union brigade
commander crossed at an unguarded ford and struck the right
flank of the Confederate defenders?
- Col. Ulysses S. Grant
- Col. William T. Sherman
- Col. Philip Sheridan
11) As Confederate forces retreated from their
Matthews Hill position, the remainder of Evans's, Bee's, and
Bartow's commands received some cover from Capt. John D. Imboden
and his battery of four 6-pounder guns, who held off the Union
advance while the Confederates attempted to regroup on Henry
House Hill. They were met by generals Joseph E. Johnston and
Beauregard, who had just arrived from Johnston's headquarters at
the M. Lewis Farm, "Portici". McDowell did not press his
advantage and attempt to seize the strategic ground immediately,
choosing to bombard the hill with the batteries of Capts. James
B. Ricketts (Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery) and Charles Griffin
(Battery D, 5th U.S.) from Dogan's Ridge.