First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): July 21, 1861
The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as
the First Battle of Manassas (the name used by Confederate
forces) was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County,
Virginia, near the City of Manassas. It was the first
major land battle of the American Civil War.
What do you know about The First
Battle of Bull Run or the First Battle of
Try this Alan’s US Civil War
History Made Easy Quiz.
“Check Your Answers”
at the end of the page.
The Confederate brigade commander posted his five regiments on
the reverse slope of the hill, where they were shielded from
direct fire, and was able to assemble 13 guns for the defensive
line, which he posted on the crest of the hill; as the guns
fired, their recoil moved them down the reverse slope, where
they could be safely reloaded.
Who was the
Confederate brigade commander?
- Col. Thomas J. Jackson
- Col. John Mosby
- Col. Frances Marion
2) Like many engagements in the Civil War, here
the Union artillery had an advantage. The Confederate pieces
were now within range of the Union smoothbores and the
predominantly rifled pieces on the Confederate side were not
effective weapons at such close ranges, with many shots fired
over the head of their targets.
3) One of the casualties of the artillery fire
was an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave
her bedroom in the Henry House. As Union Captain James B.
Ricketts (Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery) began receiving rifle
fire, he decided that it was coming from the Henry House and
turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through
the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted
multiple injuries, from which she died later that day.
Who was the 85-year old widow?
- Judith Carter Henry
- Jasmin Henry
- Jennie Cash Henry
4) "The enemy are driving us," the Third
Brigade commander exclaimed to Jackson. Jackson, a former U.S.
Army officer and professor at the Virginia Military Institute,
is said to have replied, "Then, Sir, we will give them the
bayonet." He exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting,
"There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine
to die here, and we will conquer. Rally behind the Virginians."
Who was the Third Brigade commander who is credited with
naming “Stonewall” Jackson?
- Brig. Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.
- Brig. Gen. Malcolm Middle
- Brig. Gen. Barnard Sanders
5) Artillery commander Charles Griffin (Battery
D, 5th U.S.) decided to move two of his guns to the southern end
of his line, hoping to provide raking fire against the
Confederates. At approximately 3 p.m., these guns were overrun
by a Confederate regiment , whose men were outfitted in blue
uniforms, causing Griffin's commander, Maj. William F. Barry, to
mistake them for Union troops and to order Griffin not to fire
What was the Confederate regiment?
- the 33rd Virginia
- the 33rd Maryland
- the 33rd Alabama
6) The capture of the Union guns turned the
tide of battle. Although McDowell had brought 15 regiments into
the fight on the hill, outnumbering the Confederates two to one,
no more than six were ever engaged simultaneously.
7) Jackson continued to press his attacks,
telling soldiers of the 4th Virginia Infantry, "Reserve your
fire until they come within 50 yards! Then fire and give them
the bayonet! And when you charge, yell like furies!" For the
first time, Union troops heard the disturbing sound of the Rebel
yell. At about 4 p.m., the last Union troops were pushed off
Henry House Hill by a charge of two regiments from a Confederate
Who was the brigade commander?
- Philip St. George Cocke
- Philip St. George Cooke
- George Crook
8) To the west, Chinn Ridge had been occupied
by Col. Oliver O. Howard's brigade from Heintzelman's division.
Also at 4 p.m., two Confederate brigades that had just arrived
from the Shenandoah Valley crushed Howard's brigade. Beauregard
ordered his entire line forward. McDowell's force crumbled and
began to retreat.
Who was NOT
a Confederate brigade commander from the Shenandoah Valley?
- Jubal A. Early
- Robert E. Lee
- Kirby Smith
9 ) The retreat was relatively orderly up to
the Bull Run crossings, but it was poorly managed by the Union
officers. A Union wagon was overturned by artillery fire on a
bridge spanning Cub Run Creek and incited panic in McDowell's
force. As the soldiers streamed uncontrollably toward
Centreville, discarding their arms and equipment, McDowell
ordered a division to act as a rear guard, but it was impossible
to rally the army short of Washington.
the Union’s rear guard division?
- Braxton Connors
- Dixon S. Miles
- Davis Reed
10) In the disorder that followed, hundreds of
Union troops were taken prisoner. The wealthy elite of nearby
Washington, including congressmen and their families, expecting
an easy Union victory, had come to picnic and watch the battle.
When the Union army was driven back in a running disorder, the
roads back to Washington were blocked by panicked civilians
attempting to flee in their carriages.
11) Since their combined army had been left
highly disorganized as well, Beauregard and Johnston did not
fully press their advantage, despite urging from Confederate
President Jefferson Davis, who had arrived on the battlefield to
see the Union soldiers retreating. An attempt by Johnston to
intercept the Union troops from his right flank, using the Army
of the Potomac’s First Brigade and Fourth Brigaded was a
failure. The two commanders squabbled with each other and when
Bonham's men received some artillery fire from the Union rear
guard, and found that Union Israel B. Richardson’s brigade
blocked the road to Centreville, he called off the pursuit.
Brig. Gen. Milledge L. Bonham was the First Brigade commander.
Who was the commander of the Fourth Brigade?
- Tyrone Banks
- James Longstreet
- George W. Pickett