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First Battle of Bull Run: Background | Part 1 | Part 2 | Aftermath

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First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas): July 21, 1861 (Part 2)

The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the First Battle of Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces) was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the City of Manassas.  It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War.

What do you know about The First Battle of Bull Run or the First Battle of Manassas?
Try this Alan’s US Civil War History Made Easy Quiz.
Check Your Answers” at the end of the page.

First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) - Trivia powered by ABE1) The Confederate brigade commander posted his five regiments on the reverse slope of the hill, where they were shielded from direct fire, and was able to assemble 13 guns for the defensive line, which he posted on the crest of the hill; as the guns fired, their recoil moved them down the reverse slope, where they could be safely reloaded.
Who was the Confederate brigade commander?

  • Col. Thomas J. Jackson
  • Col. John Mosby
  • Col. Frances Marion

2) Like many engagements in the Civil War, here the Union artillery had an advantage. The Confederate pieces were now within range of the Union smoothbores and the predominantly rifled pieces on the Confederate side were not effective weapons at such close ranges, with many shots fired over the head of their targets.

  • True or False?

3) One of the casualties of the artillery fire was an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave her bedroom in the Henry House. As Union Captain James B. Ricketts (Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery) began receiving rifle fire, he decided that it was coming from the Henry House and turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted multiple injuries, from which she died later that day.
Who was the 85-year old widow?

  • Judith Carter Henry
  • Jasmin Henry
  • Jennie Cash Henry

4) "The enemy are driving us," the Third Brigade commander exclaimed to Jackson. Jackson, a former U.S. Army officer and professor at the Virginia Military Institute, is said to have replied, "Then, Sir, we will give them the bayonet." He exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Rally behind the Virginians."
Who was the Third Brigade commander who is credited with naming “Stonewall” Jackson?

  • Brig. Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.
  • Brig. Gen. Malcolm Middle
  • Brig. Gen. Barnard Sanders

5) Artillery commander Charles Griffin (Battery D, 5th U.S.) decided to move two of his guns to the southern end of his line, hoping to provide raking fire against the Confederates. At approximately 3 p.m., these guns were overrun by a Confederate regiment , whose men were outfitted in blue uniforms, causing Griffin's commander, Maj. William F. Barry, to mistake them for Union troops and to order Griffin not to fire on them.
What was the Confederate regiment?

  • the 33rd Virginia
  • the 33rd Maryland
  • the 33rd Alabama

6) The capture of the Union guns turned the tide of battle. Although McDowell had brought 15 regiments into the fight on the hill, outnumbering the Confederates two to one, no more than six were ever engaged simultaneously.

  • True or False?

7) Jackson continued to press his attacks, telling soldiers of the 4th Virginia Infantry, "Reserve your fire until they come within 50 yards! Then fire and give them the bayonet! And when you charge, yell like furies!" For the first time, Union troops heard the disturbing sound of the Rebel yell. At about 4 p.m., the last Union troops were pushed off Henry House Hill by a charge of two regiments from a Confederate brigade.
Who was the brigade commander?

  • Philip St. George Cocke
  • Philip St. George Cooke
  • George Crook

8) To the west, Chinn Ridge had been occupied by Col. Oliver O. Howard's brigade from Heintzelman's division. Also at 4 p.m., two Confederate brigades that had just arrived from the Shenandoah Valley crushed Howard's brigade. Beauregard ordered his entire line forward. McDowell's force crumbled and began to retreat.
Who was NOT a Confederate brigade commander from the Shenandoah Valley?

  • Jubal A. Early
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Kirby Smith

9 ) The retreat was relatively orderly up to the Bull Run crossings, but it was poorly managed by the Union officers. A Union wagon was overturned by artillery fire on a bridge spanning Cub Run Creek and incited panic in McDowell's force. As the soldiers streamed uncontrollably toward Centreville, discarding their arms and equipment, McDowell ordered a division to act as a rear guard, but it was impossible to rally the army short of Washington.
Who command the Union’s rear guard division?

  • Braxton Connors
  • Dixon S. Miles
  • Davis Reed

10) In the disorder that followed, hundreds of Union troops were taken prisoner. The wealthy elite of nearby Washington, including congressmen and their families, expecting an easy Union victory, had come to picnic and watch the battle. When the Union army was driven back in a running disorder, the roads back to Washington were blocked by panicked civilians attempting to flee in their carriages.

  • True or False?

11) Since their combined army had been left highly disorganized as well, Beauregard and Johnston did not fully press their advantage, despite urging from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, who had arrived on the battlefield to see the Union soldiers retreating. An attempt by Johnston to intercept the Union troops from his right flank, using the Army of the Potomac’s First Brigade and Fourth Brigaded was a failure. The two commanders squabbled with each other and when Bonham's men received some artillery fire from the Union rear guard, and found that Union Israel B. Richardson’s brigade blocked the road to Centreville, he called off the pursuit. Brig. Gen. Milledge L. Bonham was the First Brigade commander.
Who was the commander of the Fourth Brigade?

  • Tyrone Banks
  • James Longstreet
  • George W. Pickett

First Battle of Bull Run: July 21, 1861 (Part 2)
[Answers]

  1. Col. Thomas J. Jackson

  2. False. Unlike many engagements in the Civil War, here the Confederate artillery had an advantage. The Union pieces were now within range of the Confederate smoothbores and the predominantly rifled pieces on the Union side were not effective weapons at such close ranges, with many shots fired over the head of their targets.

  3. Judith Carter Henry

  4. Brig. Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.

  5. the 33rd Virginia

  6. False. The capture of the Union guns turned the tide of battle. Although McDowell had brought 15 regiments into the fight on the hill, outnumbering the Confederates two to one, no more than two were ever engaged simultaneously.

  7. Philip St. George Cocke

  8. Robert E. Lee

  9. Dixon S. Miles

  10. True

  11. James Longstreet

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