1. The Treaty of Laramie of 1868 had guaranteed ownership of the Black Hills
to the Lakota people.
2. In 1874, Colonel George Armstrong Custer led an expedition into the Hills
and announced the discovery of gold on French Creek near present-day Custer,
South Dakota. Custer's announcement triggered the Black Hills Gold Rush and gave
rise to the lawless town of Deadwood, which quickly reached a population of
3. In early 1876, frontiersman Charlie Utter and his brother Steve led a
wagon train to Deadwood containing what were deemed to be needed commodities to
bolster business, including gamblers and prostitutes, which proved to be a
4. Al Swearengen opened a saloon named the Gem Variety Theater in
April 7, 1877. He controlled the opium trade in the town.
5. It became known for its wild and almost lawless reputation, during which
time murder was common, and punishment for murders not always fair and
6. A fire on September 26, 1879, devastated the town, destroying over 300
buildings and consuming everything belonging to many inhabitants. Without the
opportunities of rich untapped veins of ore that characterized the town's early
days, many of the newly impoverished left town to try their luck elsewhere.
7. A narrow gauge railroad, the Deadwood Central Railroad, was founded by
Deadwood resident J.K.P. Miller and his associates in 1888, in order to serve
their mining interests in the Black Hills.
8. On August 2, 1876, while playing poker at Nuttal & Mann's Saloon No.
10 in Deadwood, in the Black Hills, Dakota Territory, Hickok could not find an
empty seat in the corner, where he always sat in order to protect himself
against sneak attacks from behind, and instead sat with his back to one door. He
was shot in the back of the head with a .45-caliber revolver by Jack McCall.
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