Aftermath of the Attack? (Answers)
1. True. The elimination of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no
choice but rely on its aircraft carriers and submarines - the very weapons with
which the U.S. Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance.
2. True. A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief the
ultimate Pacific battle would be fought by battleships, in keeping with the
doctrine of Captain Alfred Mahan. As a result, Yamamoto (and his successors)
hoarded battleships for a "decisive battle" that never happened.
3. False. Targets not on Genda's list, such as the submarine base and
the old headquarters building, proved more important than any battleship. It was
submarines that immobilized the Imperial Japanese Navy's heavy ships and brought
Japan's economy to a standstill by crippling the transportation of oil and raw
materials. Also, the basement of the Old Administration Building was the home of
the cryptanalytic unit which contributed significantly to the Midway ambush and
the Submarine Force's success.
4. False. Admiral Hara Tadaichi summed up the Japanese result by
saying, "We won a great tactical victory at Pearl Harbor and thereby lost
5. False. After a systematic search for survivors, formal salvage
operations began. Captain Homer N. Wallin, Material Officer for Commander,
Battle Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, was immediately retained to lead salvage
6. True. Around Pearl Harbor, divers from the Navy (shore and
tenders), the Naval Shipyard, and civilian contractors (Pacific Bridge and
others) began work on the ships which could be refloated. They patched holes,
cleared debris, and pumped water out of ships. Navy divers worked inside the
damaged ships. Within six months, five battleships and two cruisers were patched
or refloated so they could be sent to shipyards in Pearl and on the mainland for
7. True. Intensive salvage operations continued for another year, a
total of some 20,000 hours under water. Oklahoma, while successfully
raised, was never repaired.
8. True. Arizona and the target ship Utah were too
heavily damaged for salvage, though much of their armament and equipment was
removed and put to use aboard other vessels. Today, the two hulks remain (Arizona
and Utah) where they were sunk.