… that the origins of rock
and roll have been fiercely debated by commentators and
historians of music; however, there is general agreement that
it arose in the southern United States of America - the region
which would produce most of the major early Rock and
Roll acts - through the meeting of the different
musical traditions which had developed from transatlantic
African slavery and largely European immigration in that
… that the migration of
many freed slaves and their descendants to major urban centers
like Memphis and north to New York
City, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland and Buffalo meant
that black and white residents were living in close proximity
in larger numbers than ever before, and as a result heard each
other's music and even began to emulate each other's fashions?
… that radio
stations that made white and black forms of music
available to both groups, the development and spread of the
gramophone record, and musical styles such as jazz and swing
which were taken up by both black and white musicians, aided
this process of "cultural collision?"
… that the immediate roots
of Rock and Roll lay in the so-called "race
music" and hillbilly music (later called rhythm and
blues and country and western) of
the 1940s and 1950s.
… that particularly
significant influences to Rock and Roll were
jazz, blues, boogie woogie, country, folk and gospel music.
commentators differ in their views of which of these
forms were most important and the degree to which the new
music was a re-branding of African American rhythm and blues
for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms.
… that in the
1930s jazz, and particularly swing, both in urban
based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, was
among the first music to present African American sounds for a
predominately white audience.
… that the 1940s
saw the increased use of blaring horns (including saxophones),
shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz based music.
… that during and
immediately after World War II, with shortages of fuel and
limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz
bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by
smaller combos, using guitars, bass and drums.
…that in the same period,
particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the
development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent
beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many later developments.
… that country boogie and
Chicago electric blues supplied many of the elements that
would be seen as characteristic of Rock and Roll.
… that Rock and
Roll arrived at a time of considerable technological
change, soon after the development of the electric guitar,
amplifier and microphone, and the 45 rpm record.
… that there were also
changes in the record industry, with the rise of independent
labels like Atlantic, Sun and Chess servicing
niche audiences and a similar rise of radio stations that
played their music.
… that it was the
realization that relatively affluent white teenagers were
listening to this music that led to the development of what
was to be defined as Rock and Roll as a