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Shenandoah River

The Blue Ridge Mountains as seen from Blowing Rock, North Carolina.The Shenandoah River is a tributary of the Potomac River, 57 miles long with two forks approximately 100 miles long each, in the U.S. states of Virginia and West Virginia.  The principal tributary of the Potomac, the river and its tributaries drain the central and lower Shenandoah Valley and the Page Valley in the Appalachians on the west side of the Blue Ridge Mountains, in northwestern Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia.

Course
The Shenandoah River is formed northeast of Front Royal near Riverton, by the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork.  It flows northeast across Warren County, passing underneath Interstate 66 1 mile from its formation. Beyond the I-66 bridge the river flows thorough a set of bends before turning to the northeast again, crossing into Clarke County 11 miles below I-66. 5 miles downriver from the Clarke County border, the Shenandoah passes under U.S. Route 50 and then passes through a triple bend.

14.5 miles below the Route 50 bridge, the river passes underneath Virginia Route 7 and then continues northeast another 8 miles before crossing into Jefferson County in West Virginia, in the extreme eastern tip of the state. Once in West Virginia the river completes six large bends before joining with the Potomac from the south near Harpers Ferry 20 miles, from the Virginia-West Virginia border.

Geology
The Shenandoah valley is underlain by limestone.  The fertile soil made it a favored place for early settlement and it continues to be a major agricultural area of Virginia and West Virginia. Some karst topography is evident and the limestone is honeycombed with caves including several commercial tourist attractions such as Luray Caverns, Shenandoah Caverns, and Skyline Caverns.  On the riverbank a few miles above Harper's Ferry is said to be a cave with an opening just large enough for a mounted rider to squeeze through, widening in the interior to a spacious room where Col. John Mosby's raiding troops used to disappear from pursuing Union cavalry.

Environmental issues
Since 2005, the Shenandoah River has experienced a series of fish kills every spring that have affected several of its native fish species. In the spring of 2005, redbreast sunfish and smallmouth bass along 100-mile stretch of the South Fork Shenandoah River began dying of lesions caused by bacteria and fungi. Although the fish kill eventually wiped-out 80% of the adult redbreast sunfish and smallmouth bass, juvenile populations appeared to be unaffected. 

The following year more-localized fish kills in Clarke County spread to two of the Shenandoah's three species of sucker, the shorthead redhorse and the northern hogsucker - the former suffering from similar lesions witnessed in the previous year's fish kill.  Virginia's Department of Environmental Quality again received reports of fish kills near Elkton and between Bentonville and Front Royal in late-April 2007 and observed fish exhibiting lesions and strange behavior.

Culture
The folk song "Oh Shenandoah" has been covered by a number of different artists including Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Statler Brothers, jazz guitarist Bill Frisell, and Bruce Springsteen. The song may or may not refer to the Shenandoah River or Valley.
The Shenandoah River figures prominently in John Denver's "Take Me Home, Country Roads," which associates the river with the state of West Virginia. Only the last 20 miles of the river are in the semi-detached Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, with the vast majority of the river and its forks and tributaries flowing through Virginia.

South Fork Shenandoah River
The South Fork is formed at Port Republic in southern Rockingham County, by the confluence of the North River and South River. It flows 98.5 miles (158.5 km)[1] northeast in a tight meandering course, past Elkton and Shenandoah, through Page Valley, with the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Massanutten Mountain range to the west.

South Fork tributaries

  • North River

    • Middle River

  • South River

    • Back Creek

North Fork Shenandoah River
The North Fork is 105 miles long and rises in northern Rockingham County, along the eastern flank of Shenandoah Mountain in the George Washington National Forest. At its formation, the principal feeder on the North Fork is the German River. 

The North Fork flows initially southeast, down from the mountains, then northeast through a valley across Shenandoah County, along the western side of Massanutten Mountain. It flows past Woodstock and Strasburg.

On the north end of the ridge it turns briefly southeast to join the South Fork from the northwest to form the Shenandoah.

North Fork tributaries

  • German River

  • Cedar Creek

  • Smith Creek

  • Toms Brook

  • Passage Creek

Shenandoah tributaries
West Virginia

  • Hog Run

  • Long Marsh Run

  • Bullskin Run

  • Evitts Run

  • Forge Run

  • Cattail Run

  • Flowing Springs Run

Virginia

  • Happy Creek

  • Manassas Run

  • Venus Branch

  • Long Branch

  • Spout Run

  • Morgan Mill Stream

  • Chapel Run

  • Lewis Run

  • Craig Run

  • Dog Run

  • Spout Run

  • Wheat Spring Run

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